There is a deeper malaise than the Filipino's inability to do some critical thinking or a failure to vote wisely. That being the case, neither course of action — (non-violent) movements and social media activism — will generate any significant result.
In the Philippines, the holding of rallies and protest marches to draw attention to an issue is diminished in value because over the past 27 years, Filipinos have ROMANTICISED them. We've come to think of "People Power" as the "magic bullet" to effect change, with the expectation that transforming the nation will be instantaneous if enough people start marching in the streets. But you rarely see these people involved in the messy job of nation building afterward.
On the other hand, social media activism isn't taking root in the Philippines the way it has in Europe, the United States, North Africa and in the Middle East if as you point out Filipino users insist on relegating Facebook to "happy" posts.
What needs to be answered then is: WHY do Filipinos behave this way? Answer that and you solve the problem of development in the Philippines.